Robin Hanson. According to it, the Fermi-paradox can be explained by the existence of a barrier that usually prevents the dead matter to become living and/or intelligent and albeit we were able to overcome it, the other candidates for either life or thinking wasn’t lucky/smart enough to get over it. In short: there are some factors that work against the living/intelligent beings.
Of course, it is only a theory and there are other, possible explanations for the “Great Silence” (=our missing “companion intelligences” in the Universe). For example: a low probability of life; or our inability to detect their signs; or we are the first intelligent races so it is not a surprise not to observe other intelligences in our light cone.
But we could adapt this Great Filter hypothesis for the future. Fred C. Adams (Long-term astrophysical processes, in: Global Catastrophic Risks, 2008) draws up our Universe’s very distant future up to 10^100 ears and regarding the survival of life, there are some fundamental turning points in the distant future of the Universe.
The first one is about the survuval of the earthly life. Our planet will be uninhabitable for an intelligent being within a 0.9 – 1.5 billion year and the biosphere will be “essentially sterilized in about 5.5 billion years” by the Sun. Notice that our environment in the Planetary System is not too life-friendly: a smaller start with 10% mass of the Sun would shine for trillion years (p. 44–46.). Regarding our actual knowledge about the pace of our human races’ technological developments, it seems to be possible to circumvent these problems–e.g. by migrating to another star.
The second barrier is more problematic. About 10^40 years later, because of the proton decay the matter in its traditional form will disappear and it means the “life as we know it”. (p. 47.)
It seems to be a serious “Great Filter” regarding the future of life and it would be a real challenge to find a solution which would be able to guarantee the survival of the life in this radically different physical environment. Of course, 10^40 year seem to be an unimaginably long time–but notice that it is not the end of the history of our Universe. The remains of the earlier era: the last black holes will be evaporated within a 10^100 years and only after it begins that epoch when “predictions of the physical universe begin to lose focus”. (p. 49.)
In other worlds: the living period (its end will be caused by the baryon decay) is like a phenomenon disappearing after the first trillionth – trillionth – trillionth… second of the Big Bang. A 10^40 years are simply negligible to the remaining period of time.
So it isn’t evident to argue that the “aim” of our whole Universe is that momentary phenomenon of life. However, the final conclusion of the Strong Anthropic Principle is that the appearance of life is a necessity. But why not, for example, the black holes?
So we have two choices. We can either refuse the Strong Anthropic Principle as a ridiculous and flawed theory (and I tend to do it) or we can ask how it would be possible for the future life to survive these two Great Filters: the baryon and the black hole barriers–and it is a really exciting question.